You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions which are based on Reading Passage 1 below:. Part A To make political decisions about the extent and type of forestry in a region it is important to understand the consequences of those decisions. One tool for assessing the impact of forestry on the ecosystem is population viability analysis PVA.

This is a tool for predicting the probability that a species will become extinct in a particular region over a specific period. A species becomes extinct when the last individual dies. This observation is a useful starting point for any discussion of extinction as it highlights the role of luck and chance in the extinction process. To make a prediction about extinction we need to understand the processes that can contribute to it and these fall into four broad categories which are discussed below.

Some pairs may produce several young in a single year while others may produce none in that same year. Small populations will fluctuate enormously because of the random nature of birth and death and these chance fluctuations can cause species extinctions even if, on average, the population size should increase.

Taking only this uncertainty of ability to reproduce into account, extinction is unlikely if the number of individuals in a population is above about 50 and the population is growing.

This is particularly true if there is a very small number of one sex. For example, if there are only 20 individuals of a species and only one is a male, all future individuals in the species must be descended from that one male.

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For most animal species such individuals are less likely to survive and reproduce. Inbreeding increases the chance of extinction. Without genetic variability, a species lacks the capacity to evolve and cannot adapt to changes in its environment or to new predators and new diseases.

The loss of genetic diversity associated with reductions in population size will contribute to the likelihood of extinction.

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These fluctuations add yet another degree of uncertainty to the survival of many species. Catastrophes such as fire, flood, drought or epidemic may reduce population sizes to a small fraction of their average level. When allowance is made for these two additional elements of uncertainty the population size necessary to be confident of persistence for a few hundred years may increase to several thousand.

Part C Besides these processes, we need to bear in mind the distribution of a population.

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A species that occurs in five isolated places each containing 20 individuals will not have the same probability of extinction as a species with a single population of individuals in a single locality. Where logging occurs that is, the cutting down of forests for timber forest-dependent creatures in that area will be forced to leave.

Ground-dwelling herbivores may return within a decade. However, arboreal marsupials that is animals which live in trees may not recover to pre-logging densities for over a century. As more forests are logged, animal population sizes will be reduced further. Regardless of the theory or model that we choose, a reduction in population size decreases the genetic diversity of a population and increases the probability of extinction because of any or all of the processes listed above.

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It is, therefore, a scientific fact that increasing the area that is loaded in any region will increase the probability that forest-dependent animals will become extinct. Questions Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Part A of Reading Passage 1? Answer: YES. Scientists are interested in the effect of forestry on native animals. PVA has been used in Australia for many years. A species is said to be extinct when only one individual exists. Extinction is a naturally occurring phenomenon.

In paragraphs A to D the author describes four processes which may contribute to the extinction of a species. Match the list of processes i-vi to the paragraphs.

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Write the appropriate number i-vi in boxes on your answer sheet. There are more processes than paragraphs so you will not use all of them. Questions Based on your reading of Part C, complete the sentences below. While the population of a species may be on the increase, there is always a chance that small isolated groupsSome of the earliest research into bilingualism examined whether bilingual children were ahead or behind monolingual2 children on IQ tests.

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From the s through to the s, the tendency was to find monolingual children ahead of bilinguals on IQ tests. The conclusion was that bilingual children were mentally confused. Having two languages in the brain, it was said, disrupted effective thinking. It was argued that having one well-developed language was superior to having two half-developed languages.

The idea that bilinguals may have a lower IQ still exists among many people, particularly monolinguals. However, we now know that this early research was misconceived and incorrect. First, such research often gave bilinguals an IQ test in their weaker language — usually English. Had bilinguals been tested in Welsh or Spanish or Hebrew, a different result may have been found. The testing of bilinguals was thus unfair.

Second, like was not compared with like. Bilinguals tended to come from, for example, impoverished New York or rural Welsh backgrounds. The monolinguals tended to come from more middle class, urban families. Working-class bilinguals were often compared with middle-class monolinguals.

So the results were more likely to be due to social class differences than language differences. The comparison of monolinguals and bilinguals was unfair. The most recent research from Canada, the United States and Wales suggests that bilinguals are, at least, equal to monolinguals on IQ tests. When bilinguals have two well- developed languages in the research literature called balanced bilingualsbilinguals tend to show a slight superiority in IQ tests compared with monolinguals.

This is the received psychological wisdom of the moment and is good news for raising bilingual children. Take, for example, a child who can operate in either language in the curriculum in the school.

That child is likely to be ahead on IQ tests compared with similar same gender, social class and age monolinguals. Far from making people mentally confused, bilingualism is now associated with a mild degree of intellectual superiority. One note of caution needs to be sounded.

IQ tests probably do not measure intelligence.Below are the course descriptions for five courses offered by a local community college. Read the descriptions and answer questions Community College Courses. If you have no previous experience with computers, or you have some gaps in your knowledge of the basics, then this is an appropriate course for you.

This course will give you a thorough grounding in the fundamental concepts of computing common to all computers. Using three of the most widely used programs in business, you will learn the basics of word processing spreadsheets and databases.

By the completion of the course, you will be productive at a basic level and competent to progress to the elementary level of any of the specialised programs. No previous computer skills assumed. In dealing with your customers you are in a position of great importance. This course will look at ways to revitalise the customer contact skills you already have and add many more. Learn ways to improve your communication with customers, at all levels; techniques to use with difficult customers, how to confidently handle complaints and keep your cool in stressful situations.

Most importantly, you will learn to build goodwill and trust with your customers. Course notes, lunch and refreshments provided. Everything you need to know before purchasing or starting a coffee shop, tearooms or small restaurant. This course covers three areas of business communication:.

Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course participants will be able to effectively: Plan and write workplace documents in plain English; gather, record and convey information using the telephone and in a face-to-face situation; interact with clients within and external to the workplace about routine matters using the telephone and face-to-face contact. An excellent course for those entering or returning to the workforce.

A Statement of Competency is issued if the assessment requirements are successfully completed. Are you hating work, wanting a different job, needing a change or wanting a promotion? Come along to a new two day program for women. We will explore your work goals and what holds you back, your fears in a work environment and how you handle them, your image and what it says to others, your communication style and what it says.

You will develop more confidence to make changes, get clearer about what you want and have the courage to act. It is a relaxed, informative and fun workshop with lots of practical tips! Choose the title which best fits each course and write the number I to IX in boxes on your answer sheet.

Note: there are more titles than you will need. Course A: …………21………. Course B: …………22………. Course C: …………23……….Click either General Training or Academic to watch the associated video lesson. In this question type, you are asked to choose the correct answer from a list of possible choices.

There are different numbers of answer choices, but test takers can expect to choose from usually 3 or 4 possible options, which are usually letters A, B, C, or D. The most common exercise will require test takers to choose from 4 different options, but you may also have to choose two answers out of five optionsor three answers out of six options.

This question type requires scanning for specific information as well as understanding information in the passage, as you will have to either complete a sentence or answer a question. Below is a sample practice. Give it a try! When earning a PhD, a dissertation is. The requirements for completing a PhD.

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Candidates who apply for work as full-time faculty at the university level. Those who hold a PhD and teach in higher education.

Adjunct faculty members are usually hired. Individuals who choose to follow a self-governing career path. People who choose to study psychology have a variety of choices when it comes to long-term careers. A bachelor's degree in psychology can provide a good foundation for a range of different professions. Statistics show that many students who graduate with a bachelor's degree in the subject have no intention of actually becoming psychologists.

Professionals who hold a PhD in psychology have far more options open to them than graduates with a bachelor's or a master's degree. In fact, completing doctoral level training is often a requirement in order to be officially recognized as a 'psychologist. In general, anyone wishing to continue a career in psychology at a 4-year institution of higher education must earn a doctoral degree in psychology. In most areas of psychology, this translates into earning a PhD in a relevant area of psychology, such as family counseling or trauma.

Some PhD candidates choose applied psychology whereas others opt to focus on research. Depending on the amount of training received, or the desired specialty of a candidate, an individual could be anything from a biological psychologist to a clinical psychologist in an academic setting. The term 'PhD' refers to a doctor of philosophy degree, but 'philosophy' is a broad term.

In this case, 'philosophy' refers to diverse disciplinary perspectives that would be grouped together in a traditional college of liberal arts and sciences. Although the requirements to earn a PhD vary depending on the country, individuals obtaining this degree can expect to complete a dissertation, which is a thorough research paper describing experiments or studies done as part of the doctoral training of a candidate.

In order for the degree to be conferred, a dissertation usually must be defended before a committee of expert reviewers. However, this requirement varies depending on the country. Once someone earns a PhD, the individual can begin seeking out a faculty appointment at a college or university. This usually involves multi-tasking duties and splitting time between teaching, research, and service to the institution and profession.

This is one reason why professors relocate to different institutions in a short amount of time; they must find the best personal fit among the various academic environments that are available to them. Often times, schools offer more courses in psychology than their full-time faculty can handle.

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In these cases, it is not uncommon to find adjunct faculty members or instructors who take on teaching various courses. Although adjunct faculty members have the necessary training to teach in the university setting, they often hold primary careers outside of the academic setting and utilize their teaching experiences as secondary careers.

Although rare, these faculty members may not hold the doctoral degree required by most accredited 4-year institutions and use these opportunities to gain useful experience in teaching.Read the text below and answers to the questions on your answer sheet. They can be your private English tutor right on your computer!

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Basics, oral, written, specific interests [eg: tourism] and preparation for Cambridge and IE0S exams. I can make speaking English easy for you!

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John Bennett-Smith M 27 Canada I have been teaching English conversation as a volunteer in a language centre in my city for about one year. I have also been using e-mail. ICQ and NetMeeting to teach grammar, composition and conversation over the Internet to about 20 or so students for about the same length of time. I am willing to teach free of chargeprivately or to groups, and to teach those language skills which are of interest to a particular student.

Pamela Arrowsmith F 56 Australia I have taught English for over 30 years, and have developed a range of classroom materials. I can arrange trips to Australia for business and professional adults, either individuals or groups [maximum of four adults] and these can include English classes. If desired. Jean-Pierre Joya M 22 France I really like to create new kinds of teaching materials and I usually create my own activities instead of using the same Kind of exercises and texts we all are used to.

I offer a complimentary assessment of your skill level. My students range from pre-schoolers to adults. With my experience and knowledge, I can help you to target your learning difficulties and Improve your English ability! Write the appropriate letter A-E in boxes on your answer sheet.

Which tutor would you choose…? Answer: A 1. Choose two appropriate letters, A-Efor answers 6 and 7. Write two letters in boxes 6 and 7 on your answer sheet. Which TWO descriptions mention - 6. No-Waste is a goal and a process that involves individuals, communities, businesses and all levels of government.

It leads to a future where trash is a thing of the past. Household Plastic containers Includes milk jugs, yoghurt containers, detergent bottles. Excludes containers made of foam, plastic containers which held ammonia-based products, or metal bottle lids. Rinse to remove food or residue. Leave labels on, flatten or stack plastic containers to reduce space required. Glass containers Leave labels on. Discard caps. No other types of glass such as kitchenware, drinking glasses, window glass, light bulbs, mirrors or any broken glass.

Metals Food and beverage containers. Cans - rinse and remove labels, flatten and fold together. Foil trays - rinse, flatten and fold together. No metal pots, take out container lids, cigarette wrappings.

Beside your blue box YELLOW BAG Household paper - junk mail, envelopes, brochures, paper bags, egg cartons fibre only ; box packaging such as cereal, shoe boxes, paper towel cores, white and coloured office paper, telephone books.

Remove liners, flatten packaging and place inside the bag.The three parts of this practice Reading test are presented over three separate web pages.

Make sure you move swiftly from one page to the next so that your practice is as realistic as possible. Time yourself and allow just one hour to complete all three parts. There are 40 questions in this practice paper. Each question carries one mark. If you prefer to work offline, download the test paper and blank answer sheet. At the end of the test you will be asked to hand in both the question paper and your answer sheet.

You should spend about twenty minutes on it. Skip to main content. In this section. Instructions to candidates In the actual test you will be given the following instructions: do not open this question paper until you are told to do so write your name and candidate number in the spaces at the top of the page read the instructions for each part of the paper carefully answer all the questions write your answers on the answer sheet; use a pencil you must complete the answer sheet within the time limit At the end of the test you will be asked to hand in both the question paper and your answer sheet.

Review Once you have completed all three sections, download the answers and see how you have done.From the very first caveman to scale a tree or hang from a cliff face, to the mighty armies of the Greco-Roman empires and the gymnasiums of modern American high schools, calisthenics has endured and thrived because of its simplicity and utility. Calisthenics enters the historical record at around B. Herodotus reported that, prior to the battle, the god-king Xerxes sent a scout party to spy on his Spartan enemies.

The scouts informed Xerxes that the Spartans, under the leadership of King Leonidas, were practising some kind of bizarre, synchronised movements akin to a tribal dance. Xerxes was greatly amused. His own army was comprised of overmen, while the Spartans had just Leonidas was informed that he must retreat or face annihilation.

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It turns out their tribal dance was not a superstitious ritual but a form of calisthenics by which they were building awe-inspiring physical strength and endurance.

The Greeks took calisthenics seriously not only as a form of military discipline and strength but also as an artistic expression of movement and an aesthetically ideal physique. Indeed, the term calisthenics itself is derived from the Greek words for beauty and strength.

We know from historical records and images from pottery, mosaics and sculptures of the period that the ancient Olympians took calisthenics training seriously. They were greatly admired — and still are, today — for their combination of athleticism and physical beauty.

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This expression has travelled through centuries and continents and the source of this envy and admiration is the calisthenics method. Calisthenics experienced its second golden age in the s. This century saw the birth of gymnastics, an organised sport that uses a range of bars, rings, vaulting horses and balancing beams to display physical prowess.

This period is also when the phenomena of strongmen developed. These were people of astounding physical strength and development who forged nomadic careers by demonstrating outlandish feats of strength to stunned populations.

Most of these men trained using hand balancing and horizontal bars, as modern weight machines had not yet been invented. But Atlas was the last of a dying breed. The tides were turning, fitness methods were drifting away from calisthenics, and no widely-regarded proponent of the method would ever succeed him.